American Indian groups have had to struggle to keep their unique cultural systems over the last several hundred years. Initially, as Europeans arrived on the continent it was the loss of physical life that threatened the Indian way of life. Later, migrations, religious conversion, and governmental restrictions led to increasing loss of traditional ways and adoption and adaptation of new ways. Even today, asa Indian peoples seek to maintain their values and culture, they face many challenges from constant pressures of the surrounding non-indian culture. Life for most Indian people has improved in many ways in recent decades. But factors such as employment, education, and infant survival continue to fall below, whereas alcoholism and diseases such as diabetes surpass most other cultural groups in North America. Still, Indian culture persists.
Vol.26_No.1_2006_Stapp et al_17-25.pdf