(Partial Abstracts, click on <full abstract> link to view a full abstract, or <Get PDF> to get the full article)
The seven papers that follow were all presented at the 96th Annual Meeting of the American Anthropological Association (AAA), which ran from November 19-23, 1997, in Washington, District of Columbia. The actual day of presentation was November 23, 1997.
Knowledge versus Knowing: Zande Leechcraft
Margaret L. Buckner
No. 1, Vol. 18, Spring, 1998 pp 3 – 7
Recent fieldwork among the Zande in the Central African Republic has revealed an amazing diversity in medicinal plant recipes given by residents of the same village and even members of the same family. Each individual learns throughout his or her life, through a variety of sources and experiences, more or less a unique repertoire of treatments using plants.
KRÉYÒL-KYÒLÒLÒ: Grounds for Indigenous Knowledge in Writing Creole Dictionaries
Ellen M. Schnepel
No. 1, Vol. 18, Spring, 1998 pp 8 – 15
In regions where French-lexically based creoles are spoken, language strategists have singled out creole language promotion and development as a critical arena for the affirmation of cultural identity. Within local movements to legitimize kréyòl, native linguists and cultural militants have focused on the transition from orality to literacy through the creation of a writing system for kréyòl and the production of dictionaries.
Infighting in San Francisco: Anthropology in Family Court, Or: A Study in Cultural Misunderstanding
No. 1, Vol. 18, Spring, 1998 pp 37 – 41
Working with Native Americans eighteen years ago, sharing their indigenous knowledge, I represented six Bannock Shoshoni women in court. I was their expert witness in a dispute concerning land and fraud, and we went to court and won. ...
This paper is about the anthropologist as expert witness in the culture of the family, learning new roles and rules in a tough arena of court procedures, strategies, and tactics. When deciding to accept a case or not, ethical judgments are critical considerations based, on balance, on indigenous knowledge, but once the anthropologist as expert witness takes the case, no room exists for ambiguity or ambivalence.
Impediments to the Economic Development of Nova Scotia's Largest Micmac Reserve
Daniel P. Strouthes
No. 1, Vol. 18, Spring, 1998 pp 42 – 46
In this paper, I argue that the general poverty of the Canadian Maritimes requires that successful Nova Scotia Micmac economic development projects utilize medium-sized businesses, since small businesses cannot bring sufficient amounts of capital into the community to sustain the population. I further argue that the achievement of successful economic development on Nova Scotia's largest Micmac reserve, Eskasoni, is impeded by a general lack of knowledge of business principles, by political factors in band-owned businesses, and by a traditional, highly positive value on individualism in non-band-owned businesses.
Holding to the Middle Path in Ladakh: Tibetan Plateau
No. 1, Vol. 18, Spring, 1988 pp 63 – 67
Traditional Ladakhi culture, thriving in a brutal region of the Tibetan Plateau in the isolated northern corner of India ... This article discusses the effects and local response to these recent pressures from the “outside world” and, in particular, the work of the International Society for Ecology and Culture/Ladakh Project, which has been an exceptionally successful model of “applied anthropology” that has never called itself applied anthropology.
Migrant Women and Social Support: Two Comparative Case Studies in a Colorado Community
Christina Heyon Lee Ursula Lauper
No. 1, Vol. 18, Spring, 1998 pp 68 – 75
Since the 1970's, according to Cohen and Syme in Social Support and Health, there has been a dramatic increase in interest in the concept of social support as it affects health and well-being. This interest is reflected by an increase in treatment and intervention programs which encourage social support. Our research focuses on social support systems as a means to decrease isolation as well as inadequate housing, food, transportation and health care.
Don’t Fence Me Out: Immigration Creates Fierce Debate Throughout the World An Interview with Professor Hiroshi Motomura, University of Colorado School of Law
No. 1, Vol. 18, Spring, 1998 pp 87 – 89
Nothing is more fundamental to our way of life than deciding who “We the people” are.
That’s why immigration is one of the hottest topics in the media, in Congress, and in national, state, and local politics. In the classroom, studying the laws that determine who can come to a country and who can’t gives students a chance to explore broader themes in the law, Motomura believes.
AAA Recommends “Race” be Scrapped; Suggests New Government Categories
Mary Margaret Overbey
No. 1, Vol. 18, Spring, 1998 p 90
ARLINGTON, VA undefined September 8, 1997. The US Government should phase out use of the term “race” in the collection of federal data because the concept has no scientific justification in human biology, according to a statement released today by the American Anthropological Association (AAA).
Adventures of a Neophyte in Tibet
No. 1, Vol. 18, Spring, 1998 pp 91 – 94
After six months of on again, off again departure plans and mixed messages from government officials, we were hoping that we had found the "window of opportunity" for arriving in Lhasa; after Monlam festival, but before the 40th anniversary of "the people's peaceful liberation of Tibet."
Home on the Range: An Anthropological Analysis Land Use Values in Conflict Between Cattle Ranchers in Southwestern Montana who Depend on Federally Owned Range Land and Environmentalists
Justin B. Lee
No. 2, Vol. 18, Fall, 1998 pp 100 – 113
This paper focuses on the cultural value system of ranchers in Southwestern Montana who use federal lands for grazing. It discusses those elements which can be used to explain the historic and current conflict over public grazing policy and federal land use as well as some of the current issues which contribute to the conflict.
The Landscape of Reason: A Scheme for Representing Arguments Concerning Environmental, Health, and Safety Effects of Chemical Weapons Disposal in the U.S.
Edward B. Liebow, Judith A. Bradbury, Kristi M. Branch, Judith Heerwagen, R. Steven Konkel, and Jennifer Leyson
No. 2, Vol. 18, Fall, 1998 pp 115 – 125
To reduce the risk of environmental contamination and honor an international treaty, chemical weapons stored at eight locales around the U.S. are slated for destruction. Incineration is the main choice of a National Research Council committee directed by Congress to weigh the hazards of alternative destruction technologies, but many citizens' groups remain unconvinced. The U.S. Army, which must dispose of the dangerous chemicals, faces decisions about the choice of destruction technologies, as well as more specific questions concerning protection of environment, safety and public health once the technology choices are made. Based on more than 200 individual interviews and 40 focus groups held in communities near where the weapons are stored, this paper illustrates an "argumentation" scheme for representing the underlying reasons for varying positions in the conflict over technology choices. The "argumentation" scheme is effective in representing qualitative interview data concerning the complex and dynamic environmental perspectives of diverse regional and national constituencies.
Aging in Healthy Communities and Neighborhoods: Organizational Coalitions and Participatory Research
Sue Gena Lurie
No. 2, Vol. 18, Fall, 1998 pp 127 – 131
This article is an evaluation of community projects that apply participatory research and/or interdisciplinary practice to the planning of health and social programs for the aging. Methods of group participant observation and interviewing are used to compare two projects in the same city:
Applying Anthropology to Courtroom Work
Joan C. Ludeke
No. 2, Vol. 18, Fall, 1998 pp 132 – 141
Anthropology is continually expanding its parameter. As a consequence, the twenty-first century will see the sub- discipline of applied anthropology coming to the fore as more and more anthropologists contribute their expertise to problem-solving in the non-academic world.
Grounds for Indigenous Knowledge in Park Planning: An Arizona Example
Lawrence F. Van Horn
No. 2, Vol. 18, Fall, 1998 pp 142 – 149
Grounds for indigenous knowledge in park planning may be categorized in at least three different ways: 1) legally, meaning requirements by law to consult with culturally affiliated indigenous peoples and thereby seek indigenous knowledge to apply to governmental-agency land management; 2) morally, whereby land managers seek indigenous knowledge to respect and incorporate human rights in their land management; and 3) professionally, by which agency, contracting, or academic anthropologists ply their ethnographic craft to learn about indigenous beliefs and practices, with a people's or group's permission and cooperation, for the consideration of the concerns of indigenous peoples in planning alternatives. With reference to Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Arizona, this paper shows how these legal, moral, and professional motivators combine as variables in conducting Native American consultations with the monument's neighbors, the Tohono O'odham.
Analysis, Application, and Anthropology: The Omer C. Stewart Memorial Award
Gottfried (Friedl) Lang
No. 2, Vol. 18, Fall, 1998 pp 152 – 153
Of course it is a great honor to receive the Omer C. Stewart Memorial Award, especially since Omer Steward, Deward Walker, Michael Higgins and myself talked long and often about the feasibility of establishing a regional group of practicing anthropologists.